1 be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance; "Money reigns supreme here"; "Hispanics predominate in this neighborhood" [syn: predominate, rule, reign, prevail]
2 be in control; rule the roost; "Her husband completely dominates her"
3 have dominance or the power to defeat over; "Her pain completely mastered her"; "The methods can master the problems" [syn: master]
to govern, rule or control by superior authority or power
- German: dominieren
The Dominate was the 'despotic' last (after the Principate) of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476.
The word is derived from the Latin dominus, meaning lord or master, as an owner versus his slave — this had been used sycophantically to address emperors from the Julio-Claudian (first) dynasty on, but not used by them as a style — Tiberius in particular is said to have reviled it openly. It became common under Diocletian, who is therefore a logical choice as the first ruler of the 'early' dominate. Historian David Potter describes the transformation of Government under Diocletian when describing the shifts in imagery the Emperor used to display his power (in this case the building of a huge new palace at Sirmium):
''The style of Government so memorably described by Marcus, whereby the emperor sought to show himself as a model of correct aristocratic deportment, had given way to a style in which the emperor was seen to be distinct from all other mortals. His house could no longer be a grander version of houses that other people might live in: it, like him, had to be different.''
The first phase of Imperial government, known as the Principate, when the formalities of the constitutionally-never-abolished republic were still very much the 'politically correct' image, has also often been said to have ended after the Third Century Crisis of 235–284, which concluded when Diocletian established himself as Emperor. Moving the notion of the Emperor away from the republican forms of the Empire's first three centuries, Diocletian introduced a novel system of joint rule by four, the tetrarchy, and he and his colleagues and his successors (in two imperial territories, east and west, not four) chose to stop using the title princeps, instead openly displaying the naked face of Imperial power and adopting a Hellenistic style of government more influenced by the veneration of the Eastern potentates of ancient Egypt and Persia than by the heritage of civic collegiality amongst the governing class passed down from the days of the 'uncrowned' Roman Republic.
- Arguably, more crucial than the chosen title was the earlier adoption of a divine status as divus, originally a posthumous exceptional honour awarded by the senate, later granted to the living emperor (and some members of his dynasty), becoming an unwritten prerogative of the crown.
- Contemporary historians reject the interpretation of the transition from Principate to Dominate as a clear, easily definable break (cf. Late Antiquity). Rather, they now characterise it as a much more subtle, gradual transformation, in which Diocletian's reforms of the Imperial office, while significant, are but one point on a sliding scale. Nevertheless, the distinction between two primary phases of Imperial government in Rome remains an important and useful one.
dominate in Bosnian: Dominat
dominate in German: Dominat
dominate in Spanish: Dominado (Roma)
dominate in Basque: Dominatua
dominate in French: Dominat
dominate in Italian: Dominato (storia romana)
dominate in Georgian: დომინატი
dominate in Lithuanian: Dominatas
dominate in Dutch: Dominaat
dominate in Japanese: ドミナートゥス
dominate in Norwegian: Dominatet
dominate in Polish: Dominat
dominate in Portuguese: Dominato
dominate in Romanian: Dominate
dominate in Russian: Доминат
dominate in Serbian: Доминат
dominate in Serbo-Croatian: Dominat
dominate in Swedish: Dominatet
be in, be in force, be the rage, be the rule, be the thing, bestraddle, bestride, carry authority, clear, command, control, crack the whip, deprive of freedom, dictate, direct, disenfranchise, disfranchise, domineer, enslave, enthrall, govern, handle, have clout, have power, have the ascendancy, have the power, have the right, have the say, hold captive, hold down, hold in bondage, hold in captivity, hold in leash, hold in subjection, hypnotize, keep down, keep under, lead, lead captive, look down upon, make dependent, manage, master, mesmerize, obtain, outtop, overarch, overlook, overshadow, overtop, peonize, play first fiddle, possess authority, predominate, preponderate, prevail, reign, rise above, rule, rule the roost, subject, subjugate, subordinate, supervise, surmount, take captive, take the lead, top, tower above, tower over, twist, vassalize, wear the pants, wield authority